Biography-Personality

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

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short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Born: October 2, 1869, Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency (now Gujarat)
Died: 30 January 1948, Delhi
Work/Work Achievements: The most important role in the tantra movement.

biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a prominent political leader of the Indian freedom movement. On the principles of Satyagraha and non-violence, he played an important role in giving India freedom. These principles inspired people all over the world to fight civil rights and freedom. He is also called the father of the nation of India. Subhas Chandra Bose addressed him as the father of the nation in a broadcast released from Rangoon Radio in the year 1944.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english 

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Mahatma Gandhi is a set of human beings. He followed non-violence and truth in every situation and asked the people to follow them. He spent his life in morality. She always wore a shawl made of traditional Indian dress dhoti and yarn. The great man who always eats vegetarian food has also been fasting several times for self-purification.

biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Before returning to India in 1915, Gandhi fought for the civil rights of the Indian community in South Africa as a migrant lawyer. He came to India and visited the entire country and united the farmers, labourers and labourers to fight against heavy land tax and discrimination. In 1921, he took over the reins of the Indian National Congress and influenced the political, social and economic scenario of the country by his actions. 


short biography of mahatma gandhi in english


He gained great fame from the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and then the ‘ Quit India ‘ movement in 1942. On several occasions during India’s freedom struggle, Gandhiji also stayed in jail for many years.
early life Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar, a coastal city in Gujarat in India. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was a diwan of a small state (Porbandar) of Kathiawar at the time of the British Raj. Mohandas’ mother, Putlibai Parnami, belonged to the Vaishya community and had a highly religious finance, which had the effect of young Mohandas and these values later played an important role in their lives. She regularly lent a vow and served her day and night in Surushusha when someone fell ill in the family. Thus, Mohandas naturally adopted non-violence, vegetarianism, vow for self-purification and mutual tolerance among those who believe in different religions and sects.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

At the age of 13 and a half in 1883, he was married to a 14-year-old Kasturba. When Mohandas was 15 years old, his first child was born, but he lived only a few days. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, also settled in the same year (1885). Later, there were four children of Mohandas and Kasturba – Harilal Gandhi (1888), Manilal Gandhi (1892), Ramdas Gandhi (1897) and Devdas Gandhi (1900).

His middle school education was in Porbandar and high school education at Rajkot. Mohandas was an average student at the academic level. In 1887, he passed the matriculation examination from Ahmedabad. Thereafter, Mohandas enrolled at Shamaldas College in Bhavnagar, but he remained unhappy because of poor health and home disconnection and left the college and went back to Porbandar.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english


Education and Advocacy Abroad
Mohandas was the most educated in his family, so his family believed that he could become the successor of his father and uncle. One of his family friends, Mavji Dave, advised that once Mohandas became a barrister from London, he could easily get the rank of Diwan. His mother, Putlibai and other family members opposed the idea of going abroad, but agreed to the aswasan of Mohandas. In the year 1888, Mohandas University College went to England to study the law and become a barrister at London. According to the word given to his mother, he spent his time in London. There they had a lot of difficulty in eating vegetarian food and had to starve many times in the early days. Gradually, he found out about restaurants with vegetarian food. He also subscribed to the ‘ Vegetarian Society ‘. Some members of the society were also members of the Theosophical Society and suggested mohandas to read the Gita.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

In June 1891, Gandhi returned to India and went there and found out about his mother’s death. He started advocacy in Bombay but he did not have any significant success. He then went to Rajkot where he started writing the cases for the needy, but after some time he had to leave the work.

Finally, in 1893, an Indian firm accepted the advocacy work on a one-year agreement in Natal (South Africa).

Gandhiji in South Africa (1893-1914)

biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Gandhi arrived in South Africa at the age of 24. He went there as a judicial advisor to some Indian businessmen in Pretoria. He spent 21 years of his life in South Africa, where his political thoughts and leadership skills developed. In South Africa, they faced severe racial discrimination. Once the first class coach had a valid ticket on the train, he was thrown out of the train due to refusal to go to the third class compartment. All these incidents became a turning point in their lives and led to awareness of the current social and political injustice. In view of the injustice being done to Indians in South Africa, questions arose in their minds about the dignity of Indians under the British Empire and their own identity.

In South Africa, Gandhiji inspired the Indians to fight for their political and social rights. He also raised the issue of citizenship of Indians before the South African government and actively motivated british authorities to recruit Indians in the Zulu War of 1906. According to Gandhi, Indians should cooperate in British war efforts to legalise their citizenship claims.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english



short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

biography of mahatma gandhi in english


Struggle for Indian Freedom Struggle (1916-1945)

In the year 1914, Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. By this time Gandhi had become distinguished as a nationalist leader and convener. He came to India at the behest of liberal Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale and gandhi’s views in the early stages were largely influenced by Gokhale’s views. Initially, Gandhi visited different parts of the country and tried to understand political, economic and social issues.

Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha

The movements at Champaran in Bihar and Kheda in Gujarat brought Gandhi to the first political success in India. In Champaran, the British zamandar forced the farmers to cultivate indigo instead of food crops and buy crops at a cheaper price, making the farmers worse.  Because of that, they went out of extreme poverty. After a devastating famine, the English government imposed oppressive taxes whose burden increased day by week. Overall, the situation was very disappointing. Gandhiji led protests and strikes against zamindars after which the demands of the poor and farmers were recognised.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english


In 1918, kheda in Gujarat was reeling under floods and droughts, causing the condition of farmers and the poor to become worse and people began demanding tax pardons. Under Gandhiji’s guidance at Kheda, Sardar Patel led the farmers to discuss the problem with the British. Thereafter, the British released all the prisoners by giving freedom from revenue collection. Thus, after Champaran and Kheda, Gandhi’s reputation spread across the country and emerged as an important leader of the freedom movement.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

caliphate movement

Gandhiji got the opportunity to increase his popularity within the Congress and among Muslims through the Caliphate movement. The caliphate was a worldwide movement by which the declining dominance of the Caliph was being opposed by Muslims all over the world. After being defeated in the First World War, the Ottoman Empire was disintegrated, causing concern sconcern for Muslims about the safety of their religion and shrines. The caliphate in India was being led by the ‘ All India Muslim Conference ‘. Gradually, Gandhi became its chief spokesman. He returned the honour and medal given by the British to express solidarity with the Indian Muslims. Gandhi then became not only the Congress but also the only leader in the country whose influence was on the people of different communities.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

non-cooperation movement

Gandhiji believed that english hukumat in India was possible only with the cooperation of The Indian sages and if we all together cooperate against the British, freedom is possible. Gandhiji’s growing popularity had made him the biggest leader of the Congress and now he was in a position to use weapons like non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful retribution against the British. In the meantime, the Jaliwanla massacre has shocked the country, causing a huge blow to the people.

Gandhiji called for an indigenous policy which was to boycott foreign goods, especially English goods. He said that all Indians wear hand-made khadi by our own people rather than the garments made by the British. He asked men and women to sit on yarn every day. In addition, Mahatma Gandhi also urged the boycott of UK educational institutions and courts, the release of government jobs and the return of the medal and honour received from the English government.

The non-cooperation movement was getting immense success which increased enthusiasm and participation in all sections of the society, but in February 1922 it ended with the Chauri-Chaura scandal. After this violent incident, Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement. He was arrested and prosecuted for sedition in which he was sentenced to six years imprisonment. He was released by the government in February 1924 due to poor health.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english



short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Swaraj and Namak Satyagraha

After the arrest during the non-cooperation movement, Gandhiji was released in February 1924 and stayed away from active politics till 1928. In the meantime, he was engaged in reducing the discord between the Swaraj party and the Congress and also fought against untouchability, alcohol, ignorance and poverty.

At the same time, the English government formed a new Constitutional Reform Commission for India under the leadership of Sir John Simon, but not a single member was Indian, which led to the boycott of Indian political parties. Thereafter, at the Calcutta session of December 1928, Gandhiji asked the English Hukumat to give power to the Indian Empire and also to be prepared to face the non-cooperation movement for the country’s independence. In the absence of any response by the British, the Flag of India was hoisted in Lahore on 31st December 1929 and the Congress celebrated the day of 26th January 1930 as Indian Independence Day. Thereafter, Gandhiji launched the Salt Satyagraha in protest against the imposition of tax on salt by the government under which he travelled about 388 kilometres from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat from 12th March to 6th April. The purpose of this visit was to produce salt itself. Thousands of Indians participated in the visit and were able to distract the English government. In the meantime, the government arrested more than 60 thousand people and sent them to jail.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Thereafter, the Government represented by Lord Irwin decided to hold discussions with Gandhiji, which resulted in the signing of the Gandhi-Irvine Treaty in March 1931. Under the Gandhi-Irwin Treaty, the British government agreed to release all political prisoners. As a result of this agreement, Gandhi attended the Round Table conference held in London as the sole representative of the Congress but the conference was deeply disappointing for the Congress and other nationalists. Gandhi was then arrested again and the government tried to crush the nationalist movement.

In 1934, Gandhi resigned from the Congress membership. He focused his attention on building a nation from the lowest level through ‘ creative programmes ‘ instead of political activities. He started the work of educating rural India, continuing the movement against untouchability, promoting spinning, weaving and other cottage industries and creating an education system suited to the needs of the people.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english


Harijan Movement

As a result of the efforts of Dalit leader B R Ambedkar, the English government had granted separate elections under a new constitution for the untouchables. Gandhiji, who was jailed in Yervada jail, performed a six-day fast in September 1932 and forced the government to adopt a uniform system. This was the beginning of gandhiji’s campaign to improve the lives of untouchables. On May 8, 1933, Gandhiji made a 21-day fast for self-purification and launched a one-year campaign to advance the Harijan movement. Dalit leaders like Ambedkar were not happy with this agitation and condemned Gandhiji for using the word ‘ Harijan ‘ for Dalits.

World War II and ‘Quit India Movement’

At the beginning of the Second World War, Gandhiji favoured giving ‘ non-violent moral cooperation ‘ to the British, but many Congress leaders were unhappy that the government had thrown the country into war without consulting the representatives of the people. Gandhi announced that india was being denied independence on the one hand and on the other hand, India was being inducted into the war to win democratic powers. As the war escalated, Gandhiji and the Congress intensified the demand for the ‘Quit India’ movement.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english


short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Quit India became the most powerful movement in the struggle for freedom movement, which resulted in widespread violence and arrest. Thousands of freedom fighters were either killed or injured and thousands were also arrested in the clashes. Gandhiji made it clear that he would not support the British war efforts unless India was given immediate freedom. He also said that despite personal violence, the agitation will not stop. He believed that the government anarchy prevailing in the country is more dangerous than real anarchy. Gandhiji asked all congressmen and Indians to do with non-violence or maintain discipline with die (do or dia).

As everyone anticipated, the English government arrested Gandhiji and all the members of the Congress Executive Committee on 9th August 1942 in Mumbai and Gandhiji was taken to the Anga Khan Mahal in Pune where he was held captive for two years. In the meantime, his wife Kasturba Gandhi passed away on February 22, 1944 and after some time Gandhiji also suffered from malaria. The British could not leave them in jail in this situation, so they were released on 6th May 1944 for necessary treatment. Despite the success of the Quit India Movement, the Quit India Movement organized India and by the end of The Second World War, the British government had given a clear signal that power would soon be handed over to Indians. Gandhiji ended the Quit India Movement and the Government released about 1 lakh political prisoners.


short biography of mahatma gandhi in english

Partition and freedom of the country

As has already been said, the British Government had indicated the country’s freeness at the end of the Second World War. Along with the movement of India’s independence, the demand for a ‘ separate Muslim dominated country ‘ (Pakistan) led by Jinnah had also intensified and in the decade 40, these forces turned the demand for a separate nation ‘ Pakistan ‘ into reality. Gandhiji did not want to divide the country because it was totally different from his principle of religious unity but it did not happen and the British divided the country into two pieces – India and Pakistan.

short biography of mahatma gandhi in english


Gandhiji’s assassination

On January 30, 1948, Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation, was assassinated at 5:17 pm at Birla House in Delhi. Gandhiji was going to address a prayer meeting when his murderer Nathuram Godse stained 3 bullets in the chest. It is believed that ‘ O Rama ‘ was the last word from his mouth. Nathuram Godfrom and his aide were prosecuted and sentenced to death in 1949.

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